Stages of engineering products design

Let's start with the preparation stage.

Any product begins with the technical requirements (TR). TR of the designed product is being developed by the customer or together with the customer. As a customer it can be marketing service of the company then it will be an initiative elaboration.

As a basis of the initiative elaboration can also be market researches, "brainstorming", the decision on the basis of TRIZ - ARIZ (the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving - Algorithm of Inventive Problem Solving). For enterprising elaborations in the TR we should take into account the forecasts of the requirements for the products and provide the opportunity to upgrade and improve the product.

The first and most important stage is the analysis of TK. The most important requirements of TR are: safety, health and the environment; the value of indicators determining its technical level is the economic component. At this stage the TR is being specified or finalized. Properly and well-designed TR by 50-80 percent simplifies the design of the product.

The second stage is a sketch study. If necessary, research works are being performed. Kinematic scheme are being elaborated. Nodes or design options are being developed and analyzed. Technological aspects of manufacturing of the item are being evaluated. The purchased units are also are being selected and analyzed. The modeling and calculation of the behavior of the structure are being held. If necessary, prototyping samples and tests are conducted.

The third and main stage is a technical design. On the basis of sketchy study the best solution is selected, the project plan is developed. The whole structure, design, optimization and calculation are being elaborated. More often as a result will be a prototype (a set of designed documentation for the prototype). Manufacturing, assembly prototype, modification or revision of the design for manufacture and test results.

The last stage is a working draft (for serial and mass-produced products). In this case, the entire set of documents and papers for the production of products is being analysed.

The example of sketch study - a skeleton with the definition of the required fastening and degrees of freedom is being created and then the element base is being built on.

The calculation of the admissible voltage limit with the optimization of the shape and the position of stiffeners.