The design documentation (DD) — graphical and text documents, which, together or separately, determine the structure and the system of the product and contain all necessary data for its design, construction, inspection, maintenance, repair and disposal.
In different countries, as a rule, it has its own peculiarities registration of the CD. Although the development of a market economy there is a trend towards unifying it.
DD is issued in accordance with the uniform system of design documentation ESKD, which was developed in 1968. The main development organization of the State Standard of ESKD is VNIINMASH (from 01.01.1991 of VNIIN-MASH was renamed into the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of the Examination of Union Standards (VNIIESO )). In creating ESKD research and design industry organizations are involved.
DD is designed in accordance with GOST ESKD and has worldwide recognition. However, according to the European Institute for Standardization not everything is perfect here. In Europe, the focus has been moved towards the customer: they have the technical documentation (including the design) - is not only the documentation containing the information required for the production of the product, but also the information about the manufacturer products for the customer. European Institute for Standardization GSNTI believe that the problem in Russia after the collapse of the Soviet Union is not completely solved, though a significant shift in this direction is noted in connection with the need to develop a market economy.
So the quality of the design documentation has improved considerably with an increase of the number of technical editors. Despite the fact that the information for the customer currently is produced Russia by ordinary engineers, a positive trend of educational departments editors (mainly in large organizations) is noted.
When making a DD is based on the European and American standards, as well as Russian GOST. However, in China, there is an independent institution managing the national standards. This fact can be explained that China, being on the economic revival, works closely with the countries of the European Union and America. According to the European institutions for standardization in China the main problem in the design of the DD is the language barrier. From the Chinese language of 50,000 characters 5.200 characters is enough to understand the 99.99% of the information. An average Chinese person owns 4,000 characters. In the design of the text of the DD a single phrase can be formulated with several alternative combinations of characters.
To make it easier to read the text information DD by the authorized state commissions unique technical definitions, excluding misunderstandings were introduced. The commissions cooperate with many countries and coordinate technical editors in the whole China.
During the recent years has been seen the rise of the Turkish economy. Turkey is now located on the 6th place in the field of the mechanical engineering, together with the leading European countries, where the volume of production has increased approximately twice during the last decade.
The design documentation of Turkey is made in accordance with the standards of TSE (Turkish Standards Institute). The standards are agreed upon the vast majority of European and international standards. TSE coordinates its activities with the European Commission of standards.
Designing the DD in accordance with the directives of the state institutions for Standardization (DIN - German Institute for Standardization, is a leading normalizing organization of Germany; Austrian Standards Institute (ÖNORM) in Austria; Schweizerische Normen-Vereinigung (SN) in Switzerland, etc.)
Closer cooperation of European countries led in 1957 to the formation of the European Commission and the European Standards Committee, operating in the field of electrical engineering, based in Brussels. By these organizations the so-called European Standards (EN) were developed. Many of these standards have been nationalized by the EU. This is reflected in the illustration, for instance ÖNORM EN ..., and the number of the European standard, as a rule, is borrowed, for example DIN EN ISO 2338: 1998 and ÖNORM EN ISO 901: 2000. As we can see lot’s of EN are borrowed from ISO.
As it was discussed above - in most countries the designs are made according to European regulations, or very close to them. American method differs significantly from the European one. On the design, made in Europe, based on the US rules of registration, a special sign is placed in the form of two projections of a truncated cone. A document, made in the USA based on the European method is also provided with a special sign. It represents the same two frustoconical projections, but differently located relative to each other.
If the European method of formation of the projections for the projected object is opaque plane of projection, then the American method, between the observer and the object is a transparent plane projections and projecting rays are directed toward the observer. Naturally, the mutual position of the projections varies. At the beginning of the XX century. both methods of projection already existed, but the European method was called a German one. The US standards (ANSI) to perform the design documentation differ from Russian and European ones. First of all, it should be noted that all the dimensional numbers and signs are always arranged parallel to the major sign and in the gaps of dimension lines (if there is enough space).
With a lack of space the dimension numbers endure for extension lines and are placed in the way that the continuation of the dimension lines or shelves of line- callouts bulk into them. Other features of the overall presentation of the design documentation in the US are not significant. They relate to records of forms, fonts, placement of text and table information, etc.